Technologies on Mango

121

Mango Production using plastic greenhouse in Okinawa
Country: Japan
Category: Production
Technologies Detail : Protected cultivation of mango using heating and a rain shelter promotes fruit set and reduces the incidence of anthracnose during flowering and fruiting. Postharvest diseases can occur on leaves, stems and flowers, so field control is important in reducing postharvest losses. The use of a rain shelter significantly reduced the incidence of anthracnose.
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122

Harvesting of mangos witha longer stem
Country: Brazil
Category: Harvesting
Technologies Detail : In Brazil, it is common practice to harvest mangos with a longer stem (over 5 cm) and carefully transport the fruit to the packinghouse where the stems are trimmed. Approximately 24 hours after harvest, latex will no longer drip from a mango fruit even if the stem is clipped shorter. Therefore, long-stem harvest is followed by a 12- to 24-hour waiting period at the packinghouse prior to re-trimming and running the mangos over the packingline.
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123

Hot water treatmentrecommendations
Country: USA
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail : Hot water treatment of mangos for quarantine security must be conducted in strict adherence to the USDA APHIS treatment protocols (USDA APHIS PPQ, 2010). USDA APHIS requires hot water treatment in 46.1°C (115°F) water for control of fruit flies, but the length of immersion varies with the general shape of the fruit and the fruit weight, as shown in the following table. All fruit must be graded by weight/size prior to hot water treatment to assure fruit fly control and reduce fruit injury.

USDA APHIS Hot Water Treatment Protocols:

Mango shape

 Fruit weight (grams)

 Time required (minutes)

Rounded1

≤ 500

75

501–700

90

701-900

1103

Flat2

≤ 375

65

376–570

75


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124

Hydrocooling after hot water treatment
Country: USA
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail : Hydrocooling mango fruit after hot water treatment decreases the flesh temperature much more rapidly than holding in air and can reduce hot water injury. Hydrocooling is approved by USDA APHIS immediately following the hot water treatment if 10 minutes is added to the heat treatment time; alternatively, fruit may be hydrocooled after a waiting period of at least 30 minutes at ambient temperature with no change to the heat treatment time (USDA APHIS PPQ, 2010). APHIS requires that the hydrocooler water be no colder than 21.1°C (70°F).
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125

Practices between hot water treatment and packing
Country: USA
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail : Temperature management practices between the hot water treatment and packing depend on whether the mangos were hydrocooled or not.

  • For hydrocooled mangos, pack the fruit as soon as possible after post-hot-water treatment hydrocooling to minimize re-warming of the fruit.
  • If it is necessary or desired to hold the fruit for 12 to 24 hours after hydrocooling and before packing, transfer the field crates of fruit to a cold room at 10 to 15°C (50 to 59°F).
  • If a cold room is not available and the mangos will be held in ambient conditions until packed, bins should have at least 20 cm (8 inches) of space between the stacks of field crates and the area should be ventilated (overhead paddle fans), or some other means of reducing the temperature around the fruit should be used. Note that holding mangos in ambient conditions will compromise quality.

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126

Dumping onto packinglines
Country: USA
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail : Introducing fruit onto the packingline may be accomplished either by manual dumping of field lug boxes or by automated systems that tilt and dump the boxes. In either case, the first key consideration is a gentle transfer that does not injure the fruit. A drop of no greater than 30 cm (12 inches) is recommended.

The second key consideration is to regulate the rate of dumping so that the packingline conveyor is completely covered by a single layer of fruit. This reduces the potential for fruit injury by avoiding rolling fruit that can build up momentum before impacting other fruit or the packingline components.
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127

Fruit waxing
Country: USA
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail : Waxing mango fruit, usually with carnauba-based formulations, improves their appearance by increasing the natural fruit gloss and reducing water loss, which causes mangos to appear dull. Brushing during wax application helps to obtain uniform wax distribution on the fruit. If spraying is used during wax application, care must be taken to prevent wax inhalation by workers. Waxes must be applied according to label instructions. Full-strength wax application can damage mangos—especially the less mature fruit, which are susceptible to lenticel and peel damage that can develop after a period of refrigerated storage and transport. Water-soluble coatings should be avoided because they can be dissolved during later handling when condensation occurs on fruit surfaces, such as when cold fruit are transferred to warmer temperatures.
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128

Cooling Prior to Shipping
Country: USA
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail :

Packed and palletized mangos should be cooled as rapidly as possible to their optimum shipping and storage temperature (12°C [54°F] for mature green mangos). Lowering the temperature slows fruit metabolism (including ripening), reduces water loss, and slows the initiation and spread of decay. Since mature green mangos are susceptible to chilling injury at temperatures below 12°C (with severity determined by exposure time and temperature), they should not be cooled below this point.

Room cooling

Rapid cooling requires good contact between the refrigerated air in the postharvest environment and the product in the package. Heat transfer in room cooling is achieved by cold, refrigerated air coming into contact with exposed pallet surfaces, with the heat from the interior of the pallet slowly transferred by conduction to the surface. Thus, room cooling is a relatively slow cooling method that typically requires 24 to 48 hours for palletized mangos.

Forced-air cooling

It is recommended that mangos be forced-air cooled in order to remove heat from the fruit as rapidly as possible. Forced air (or ‘pressure’) cooling improves heat transfer compared to room cooling by creating a pressure differential from one side of a pallet to the opposite side that pulls the cold, refrigerated air through the ventilation holes in the cartons, directly past the fruit within the pallet. Properly designed forced-air cooling systems are capable of reducing mango flesh temperatures from an initial range of 30 to 40°C (86 to 104°F) down to around 12 to 15°C (54 to 59°F) within 2 to 4 hours.

Hydrocooling

Hydrocooling involves immersing or drenching produce in cold water to remove heat. Although hydrocooling cools faster than forced-air cooling, it is not typically used to cool mangos prior to shipping due to logistical and sanitization management challenges. Hydrocooling presents several logistical challenges. Water sanitation management is critical to avoid transfer of decay pathogens between fruit. Hydrocooling must either be applied before packing, in which case the fruit must be thoroughly dried prior to packing, or the fruit to be hydrocooled must be packed in water-resistant shipping cartons.


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129

Storage rooms
Country: USA
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail : Temporarily holding mangos in a 10 to 12°C (50 to 54°F) storage room prior to loading onto marine containers or truck trailers is an important part of good temperature management.

  1. Refrigeration capacity in mango storage rooms should be sufficient to maintain uniform product temperature (within 1°C [2°F]) throughout the load. This requires both sufficient cooling capacity and adequate air circulation.
  • A rule of thumb for airflow in cold-storage rooms used for room cooling is 0.052 to 0.104 cubic meters per second (cms) per 1,000 kilograms of produce capacity (100 to 200 cubic feet per minute [cfm] per ton).
  • To maintain produce temperature, a lower airflow of 0.0104 to 0.0208 cms per 1,000 kilograms of produce capacity (20 to 40 cfm per ton) is all that is required.
  • The room should be loaded in such a way that air flows uniformly past all of the pallets.
  1. It is necessary to humidify storage rooms if mangos are likely to be held for more than a few days, especially if the room is used for room cooling since the high airflow rate can cause excessive water loss. The ideal relative humidity range for mangos is 85 to 95%.
  2. The humidification system should be able to maintain uniform (within 2 to 3%) relative humidity levels and be designed to distribute the moisture uniformly throughout the storage space. This minimizes problems with condensation, which can lead to weakening of fibreboard cartons.

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130

Precooling
Country: Egypt
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail : The most appropriate precooling method for mango is forced air cooling with an air velocity of about 60-100 m/min. It is common, and very practical, to precool fruit right after packaging. Fruit is usually cooled to about 2°C above its optimum temperature (about 15°C). The time needed to achieve this temperature depends on initial fruit temperature, and temperature and velocity of precooling air. However, a period of 2 to 4 hours is commonly sufficient to reduce temperature from about 38°C to 14-15°C (temperature at which precooling should be terminated).
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131

Ripening of mango
Country: Egypt
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail : Ripening of mango in Egypt is commonly done in the field right after harvest and before packaging, by increasing the temperature of the fruit. This is usually done (in a process called KAMR) by either leaving the fruit exposed in a shed for up to two days on the ground, or wrapping fruits in newspaper and again in plastic. Temperature, especially around the fruit wrapped in newspaper and plastic, is increased very significantly, causing fruit senescence. In a shed at about 5 PM, the temperature in early August was measured at 39°C, and it was 3°C higher than the air temperature outside of the shed. Temperature of fruit wrapped in newspapers and plastic is sometimes higher than 40°C. These temperatures are very damaging to mango. Temperatures above 25°C cause uneven ripening. Temperatures above 35°C slow-down the ripening process by inhibiting the enzyme ACC oxidase that is responsible for the formation of ethylene. These high temperatures increase water loss and decay incidence very significantly.
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132

Conceptual models and 3D models of packaging for mangoes
Country: Brazil
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail :

Embrapa Food Technology, National Institute of Technology and the Macromolecules Institute at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro researched the development of new packaging for mangos. The Brazilian National Economic and Social Development Bank (BNDES) supported this research. The mangoes were harvested with different sizes and shapes in order to design the packaging.

The National Institute of Technology (INT) scanned the fruits in a three-dimensional scanner to study different packaging possibilities. The packages were developed by injection (composite/extrusion).

Conceptual models and 3D models of packaging for mangoes were created and several prototypes were made in rapid prototyping equipment to determine the fittings and tolerances of the final packaging. Using the designs and the 3D files the final mango packaging molds were developed and tested. The packaging was split into two parts: thermo injected and thermoformed. The thermo injected was made using rigid plastic with a vegetable fiber composite. The thermoformed is a tray, made using flexible plastic.


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133

Heat treatment to retain fruit quality and weight
Country: South Africa
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail : Mango fruits treated at 50°C retained overall fruit eating quality and weight as compared to untreated at five days of storage in the study conducted in South Africa.
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134

Biocontrol of Postharvest Anthracnose of Mango Fruit with Debaryomyces Nepalensis
Country: China
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail : A study conducted on efficacy of Debaryomyces nepalensis on the control of postharvest mango anthracnose. The results showed that the decay incidence and lesion diameter of postharvest anthracnose of mango treated by Debaryomyces nepalensis were significantly reduced compared with the control fruit stored at 25 °C for 30 d or at 15 °C for 40 d, and the higher concentration of Debaryomyces nepalensis was, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol was. Study also found that 1 h was the best treatment duration and antagonistic yeast inoculated earlier had good biocontrol effect on anthracnose. Meanwhile, treatment by Debaryomyces nepalensis could significantly reduce postharvest anthracnose of mango, delay the decrease in firmness, TSS, TA, and ascorbic acid value, and do not impair surface color during postharvest storage. The results suggested Debaryomyces nepalensis treatment could not only maintain storage quality of mango fruit, but also decrease the decay incidence to anthracnose disease. All these results indicated that Debaryomyces nepalensis has great potential for development of commercial formulations to control postharvest pathogens of mango fruit.
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135

Off season flower induction
Country: Kenya
Category: Crop Management
Technologies Detail : The use of ethaphon and potassium nitrate can be applied to induce off-season mango production to address seasonality and reduce postharvest losses during the peak season. Moreover, in terms of the amount of Ethephon chemical used in application, it is more cost effective to spray ethephon at 600 ppm to minimize the negative effect of fruit drop on the trees.
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