Technologies on Mango

106

This technology focuses on mango nectar processing. It has been extracted from FAO's Technical Manual on Small-scale Processing of Fruits and Vegetables, and it briefly presents the necessary raw materials, equipments and stages of the processing to obtai
Country: Costa Rica
Category: Processing
Technologies Detail : Wash the mangoes in clean water and drain. Peel the mangoes and separate the pulp from the pit. Extract the mango pulp by means of the pulper. Mix the ingredients (Boiling water-1 litre per kilo of pulp; Sugar-200 g per kilo of pulp and Lemon juice- 2 spoonfuls per kilo of pulp). Boil the water with the lemon and sugar, and then add the pulp, so that the mixture has a 19% solids concentration, measured by means of a refractometer, and a pH value between 3.5 and 3.8. Remove the foam with a skimmer. Pack while it is still hot, cover with a lid and sterilize for 10 minutes in boiling water for 0.33 l bottles; 15 minutes for 0.5 l bottles, and 20 minutes for 0.75 l bottles. Let the bottles cool. Label and store.
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107

This technology focuses on mango nectar processing. It has been extracted from FAO's Technical Manual on Small-scale Processing of Fruits and Vegetables, and it briefly presents the necessary raw materials, equipments and stages of the processing to obtai
Country: Saudi Arabia
Category: Processing
Technologies Detail : Wash the mangoes in clean water and drain. Peel the mangoes and separate the pulp from the pit. Extract the mango pulp by means of the pulper. Mix the ingredients (Boiling water-1 litre per kilo of pulp; Sugar-200 g per kilo of pulp and Lemon juice- 2 spoonfuls per kilo of pulp). Boil the water with the lemon and sugar, and then add the pulp, so that the mixture has a 19% solids concentration, measured by means of a refractometer, and a pH value between 3.5 and 3.8. Remove the foam with a skimmer. Pack while it is still hot, cover with a lid and sterilize for 10 minutes in boiling water for 0.33 l bottles; 15 minutes for 0.5 l bottles, and 20 minutes for 0.75 l bottles. Let the bottles cool. Label and store.
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108

Controlling mango fruit fly in Benin
Country: Benin
Category: Crop Management
Technologies Detail : Parapheromone traps are generally used to capture male flies of certain species. The technique: at the beginning of the season, install a strip impregnated with a specific attractant and treated with a contact insecticide (malathion or deltamethrin). The traps should be installed in the orchard at least one month before the fruit becomes appealing. It is advisable to install these traps in other orchards with fly-sensitive fruit trees, e.g. citrus orchards. Small blocks of wood or strips are cut into pieces (Triplex-type chipboard) and soaked in a solution containing methyleugenol to attract the male B. invadens. A nail is driven through each strip and into the trunk of the mango tree. A concentrated solution (a malathion or deltamethrin emulsion prepared using an EC-emulsifiable concentrate-diluted in water) is then applied to the strip with a brush and left to dry. The strips (1 for 10 trees, or about 10 per hectare) are then hammered into the trees. To ensure easy replacement, the nail should not be totally driven in. The strip has to be renewed once a month. A container, such as a water bottle cut in half, can be attached under the strip to collect the capture.
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109

Anthracnose control for mango farmers in Ghana
Country: Ghana
Category: Crop Management
Technologies Detail : 1) Manual control of Anthracnose- The major task is to remove all infected material: twigs, flowers and fruits, especially all the small mummified mangos stuck in the tree. The longer it stays on trees, the wider infection will spread. Avoid the tree becoming too tall. Tall trees cannot be effectively managed leading to infection "raining down" from the upper to the lower canopy. 2) Chemical control- Spraying fungicide is an additional protection against anthracnose but chemicals ALONE cannot solve all the problems. A good prevention system (trying not to introduce the disease in the farm) and mechanical control (removing of the infected material) are the major priority.
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110

Controlling white flies in Mangoes using sugar solution
Country: Uganda
Category: Crop Management
Technologies Detail : From a Community Knowledge worker in Oyam District, Northern Uganda. Mix 1kg of sugar in 1 litre of water to make a thick solution. Make 6 small holes on the sides of a transparent half litre mineral water bottle using a 3-4inch nail. Fill each bottle quarter way with this solution and cover its top tightly. Hang two bottles in each tree. The white flies will enter the bottle through the holes and die there. After each week, remove the dead flies and add a fresh solution in each bottle. The farmer should start putting these bottles when the mangoes start flowering up to harvesting. This farmer learnt the practice from his father and has been using this practice successfully for two years. Provided by: Okec Solomon from Gwete village Acaba Subcounty Oyam district.
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111

Bacterial Black Spot (BBS) identification and control for mango farmers in Ghana
Country: Ghana
Category: Crop Management
Technologies Detail : In 2010 it was first identified in West Africa and is now a major threat for mango growers. It weakens branches and causes fruit drop. If not treated, it can devastate an entire plantation. Once the disease breaks out in a certain area, it spreads further and further every year. Windbreak trees solution: A solution is to plant wind breaks trees on the side of the plantation that receive the most of the wind. Seedlings control: Often BBS is introduced to an orchard via infected seedlings/seeds/scions brought in from nurseries. When getting new trees from a nursery, make sure the place is free of BBS. Sanitary control of transport vehicles and tools: Another opportunity for BBS to spread is immediately after harvest because diseased fruits and leaves might end up in transport vehicles. Trucks now become a fast moving threat to healthy areas along the way. Try not to carry infected fruits through the mango plantation. The BBS-bacteria can get onto your working tools, even on dry days. After working in infected areas, the tools should always be disinfected use methylated spirits or strong alcohol for the disinfection. Diseased wood control: he greatest source of infection, however, is diseased wood in the farm. The disease hides in cankers and once infected, the canker and all other diseased wood serve as sources of further infection. The greatest weapon against BBS is to thoroughly remove all this material.Manual BBS control: Removing all infected material, burning the infected wood. Chemical control: Spraying of fungicide
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112

Intercropping drought tolerant fruit trees (Mango and Jujube) in rice based farming systems in NW-Bangladesh
Country: Bangladesh
Category: Crop Management
Technologies Detail : Mango and jujube trees are suitable to be intercropped with transplanted aman (t. aman) and boro rice as well as with vegetables, allowing for a diversification of the household diet. Fruit trees serve also as cash crops that can generate alternative income sources and may thus help households bridge moments of crisis. In addition they are a source of wood fuel. An extended coverage with trees contributes to decreasing temperatures and may induce increasing rainfall, and helps counterbalancing the negative environmental impact of deforestation.
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113

Mango pulp production in Mali
Country: Mali
Category: Processing
Technologies Detail : The process is relatively simple, involving seven basic steps; washing, destoning, thermal treatment, homogenization, deaeration, pasteurization and packaging.
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114

Production process of mango in Thailand
Country: Thailand
Category: Production
Technologies Detail :

Characteristics of the farms in Thailand are quite different. Some areas in central part, cultivation is in bed systems, soil is raised in a ridge-and-furrow configuration. In northern Thailand, most are cultivated nearby the foot-hill zone or in a highland areas. In northeastern area, its location take a big advantage as it located in the rain shadow make it possible to do an off season.
Dwarf tree
Dwarf tree is beneficial to harvest. In horticultural practice, a tree artificially kept to a smaller size than is normal in order to get a minimum damage from harvesting and decrease cost.
Tip pruning
Synchronization of the vegetative growth of tree canopies is a necessary first step in the flowering management program. Synchronous growth throughout each tree allows all of the stems in the canopy to be in the same physiological stage of maturity so that
management can be most efficiently achieved uniformly throughout a section of orchard. It not only causes a uniform flush of growth throughout the canopy, it removes growth – and flower – inhibiting factors in stems derived from the previous season’s flowering and fruiting panicles. Tip pruning also stimulates lateral shoot development forming 5 to 10 times the original number of productive stems, thus, increasing potential yield. It is essential that trees have adequate water at the time of pruning to facilitate a rapid flushing response because even mild water stress during the tropical dry season discourages shoot initiation.
The flowering program can be started at any time regardless of the presence or absence of fruit. Other factors, however, such as harvest of the previous season’s crop, timing of the dry and wet seasons, and high susceptibility of flowers and fruit to disease during rainy seasons, are important considerations when deciding on the starting date of the flowering program.
Thinning
Thinning immature fruit at the appropriated time allows each remaining fruit to develop to its maximum size. Less-crowded fruit receive more sunlight, so fruit color and flavor may be improved. Fruit thinning also reduces alternate bearing.
Bagging
Bagging are used to prevent laying egg from oriental fruit fly. There are two types of bag. One is carbon bag, another is white bag. Carbon bag does not allow the light to penetrate to the fruit. This situation provide the completely uniform mango skin like Nam Dok Mai No.4 and Nam Dok Mai Si Thong variety. Bagging not only protect laying egg from fruit fly, it make skin cleaner and more attractive. While the white bag allow the light penetrate to the fruit. This kind of bag is suitable to some varieties that still need lighting for color skin development like Mahachanok variety. Bagging the individual fruit should be done at about 45 days after fruit set or just after natural thinning or dropping when the mangoes are about the size of a chicken egg.
Increase yield
Mango shoots are grafted onto the mother plant to increase yield in a small space within season. This technique can be used in almost variety and become beneficial for farmer who need to get the high profit in limited situation.


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115

Post harvest process of mango in Thailand
Country: Thailand
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail :

Cutting the fruit off the tree with the bag and stem attached to protect the fruit from defect and sap burn during transport to the packing house. The optimum maturity of fruit for distance market is 85% (From 100-120 days after fruit set depend on area). Specific gravity is provided to check maturity of fruit before bringing to the sequence of operation in packing line.

Grading

Fruits are separated into different grades according to the level of blemish and other visible defects on each fruit. Mangoes are typically graded into various classes that are distinguished by the levels of minor defects on the fruit. Range of standard for example class A, class B, and class C. Defect levels determine whether the fruit is classed as class A, class B, or class C. An allowance is the amount of defect allowed on a piece of fruit not more than 5%, 10%, and more than 10% respectively.

Packing

For EU market

Divided into individual fruit packing, 2, 3, 5 and 10 kilogram per box.

Size Weight in grams
XL 380-450
Large 330-379
Medium 280-329
Small 250-279

Storage conditions

Fruits are storage at 13℃ throughout the cool chain. Storing fruit below 5℃ leads to chilling injury. Consumers are advised to keep mango under the temperature between 18 to 22℃ to stimulus the ripening, otherwise mango could not be ripen during winter temperature in many countries.


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116

Prunining technique
Country: Thailand
Category: Crop Management
Technologies Detail :

Pruning Techniques: Pruning practice in mango in Thailand is done in two periods:

  • At the Age of Two Years: When the plant is two years old, at a height of 1.5 m, pruning is performed to initiate a canopy. This is done by cutting off the central shoots in order to have open center with three to five main scaffold branches. When the plant is 2.5 m high, flower forcing to produce off-season fruits can be done.
  • After Fruit Harvest: If the plant has been properly pruned earlier, the branches which protrude out of the canopy are cut off while the long vertical shoots have also to be trimmed off to maintain the standard canopy size. Such practice is done after harvesting the main crops every year. After pruning, the plant will flush new sets of leaves. When the young leaves fully expand, treatment of paclobutazol can be done to induce the plant to flower to produce off-season fruits for the next season. In this way, the plant remains in low stature, enabling easy manipulation, especially for fruit bagging and harvesting.

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117

Off season production
Country: Thailand
Category: Production
Technologies Detail : The use of paclobutrazol as a soil drench has been adopted by mango growers to enhance uniform off-season flowering. This technique has now been widely practiced within the Kingdom and internationally recognized later by many other producing countries. The key factors for this technique include appropriate preparation to obtain healthy trees and proper stage of tree development at which the chemical is applied. Up to 2-3 different cropping times can be induced provided trees are properly prepared and orchards are well managed. Success of induction may vary among cultivars, for example, Fa Lan’ and Nong Saeng’ are much easier to induce than Khiao Sawoei’ and ‘Raet’. Although off-season blooming can be obtained, the chemical must be carefully applied to avoid any possible damage to the trees.
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118

The use of specially-made paper bags to cover the fruits
Country: Thailand
Category: Crop Management
Technologies Detail : In order to prevent oriental fruit fly from laying eggs in the fully mature fruits, specially-made paper bags, imported from Taiwan, have been used to wrap the fruits. Two types of bags are available. One is called “carbon” bag, the other is “white” bag. The “carbon” bag does not allow the light to penetrate to the fruit. This provides suitable environment for perfect skin colour appearance of the ripe fruit; for example, the green-colour cultivar of ‘Nam Dokmai’ turns to be beautiful yellow colour similar to the yellow-colour cultivar of ‘Nam Dokmai’. However, for colourful ‘Maha Chanok’ and yellow-colour strain of ‘Nam Dok Mai’ cultivars, this type of bagging prevents colour development of the fruit. Two approaches have been used to solve the problem; (i) by wrapping the fruit later than usual, about 30 days before fruit ripening – this applies to yellow-colour strain of ‘Nam Dokmai’, and (ii) by using the “white” bag to allow light to penetrate inside the bag – this applies to ‘Maha Chanok’ cultivar. Other practices include eradication of fruit fly, the use of integrated controlling technique based on ecological data of the fruit fly, coupling with the use of poison bait and repellent.
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119

Fruit thinning
Country: Thailand
Category: Production
Technologies Detail : In order to obtain optimum fruit size, fruit thinning has been attempted. Normally only one fruit per stalk is allowed to develop so that the fruit is fully developed and turns out to be mostly of grade-A quality. This can be done when the fruit is of a thumb size, although it consumes a lot of labour. To avoid labour shortage problem, some orchards, especially in the north, thin the fruits during the time of fruit bagging.
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120

The measure on the use of agrochemicals
Country: Thailand
Category: Crop Management
Technologies Detail : The measure on the use of agrochemicals on mangoes aiming at exporting to Japan is quite strict as the importing markets have specified on the list of chemicals not allowing to be used on imported mangoes. Specification on the amount of residue permissible based on “positive list” has been issued. Thus, all concerned parties in the exportation of mangoes to Japan must follow closely and update this specification from time to time.

As for the growers, they must be GAP-registered, following the regulation set up between the growers and the exporters. The use of chemicals is of prime importance in exporting mangoes, particularly to the Japanese markets. Therefore the growers must follow the regulations set by the exporters and closely examined by the Department of Agriculture. The exporters would provide the “positive list” to the growers while the latter must record the kind and the period of chemicals used. Certain mango growers’ groups have managed to buy chemicals from large and dependable agrochemical companies by themselves on their own behalf. Some asked the companies to bid their chemicals and made legal negotiation afterwards.

Prior to exporting the mangoes, the exporters will take samples of the mangoes for analysis of chemical residues either by sending the samples to the Regional Research and Development Office in the area, or to send them to the “One Stop Service Center” (see later). If the amount exceeds the maximum residue limit (MRL), the growers are not allowed to harvest the fruits until further analysis reveals that they have not exceed the MRL
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