Technologies on Mango

76

Inarching technique in the commercial propagation
Country: Thailand
Category: Propogation
Technologies Detail : Thai mango growers apply inarching technique in the commercial propagation. The inarching method allows both scion and rootstock to still have their own roots while grafting. It supports higher chance of success in the propagation. Usually, the scion shoot attaches to the parent plant while grafted onto a seedling rootstock of 'Kaew' mango by side veneer method. In four to five weeks, a new plant is developed. In another method, the 1 to 1.5 year-old rootstock is pre-planted in the plantation prior to the actual propagation. The scion is therefore brought for grafting; and the complete propagation process is applied at the planting site. This method significantly costs lower than buying an inarching plant - the rootstock costs only 6 to 10 baht per tree, vs. a 60 cm inarching plant of normal variety which costs between 30 and 40 baht. Mango growers can prepare the new plant by themselves or they can also buy it from fruit tree nurseries.
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77

Flowering for off-season mango production.
Country: Thailand
Category: Production
Technologies Detail : Inducing mango flowering for off-season crop is now common for Thai mango growers. They apply growth retardants such as paclobutrazol to make mango crops available almost all year round. Mango growers apply growth retardants to the tree by collar drench in the soil. Before applying, growers clean the soil under the tree from weeds and have enough moisture to increase the efficiency of the chemical, since the chemical go inside the plant via xylem.
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78

Training and pruning of mango trees in Thailand
Country: Thailand
Category: Crop Management
Technologies Detail : In Thailand, 'open center' is a popular training pattern for mango trees; with at least three main branches that will be kept at 70 cm height from the ground. After harvest, pruning is needed to keep the size of the tree not so tall. This is done by cutting back about 60 cm every time. Old and weak twigs will be removed to let the light penetrate inside the tree. Mango growers sometimes put the cut shoots under the tree for mulching, as long as there are no insects or diseases.
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79

Harvesting of fruit at 85 % maturity
Country: Thailand
Category: Harvesting
Technologies Detail : For mango plantation aimed at the export market, mango fruit harvested at 85% maturation. Thai mango workers carefully hand pick mango fruit from the tree, to avoid bruises and scratches. The mango still has a long stalk attached and with the wrapping bag. The workers transport the mango to the packing house immediately. At the packing house, fruit stems will be cut to 3 to 5 cm long from the fruit basal end to avoid the gum drop on the fruit skin; then the bag will be removed. Then mango fruit will be graded and the one that meets the export quality will be separated while the other remaining fruit will be re-graded again for the domestic market.
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80

Coating mangoes with biowax
Country: Sri Lanka
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail : In Sri Lanka, a technology developed by ITI for coating mangoes with biowax has extended the shelf life up to seven and 21 days under ambient and cold conditions. Such shelf life extension will help in long distance transport and price stabilization. In Sri Lanka, the research team has devised a system whereby wax-coated mangoes are packed in hexanal impregnated banana-fiber paper. This has been found to extend the storage life of mangoes from just four days to 21 days, enabling long distance transport.
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81

Spraying mangoes with a very low concentration of hexanal (0.02%)
Country: India
Category: Production
Technologies Detail : In field tests conducted in three major mango growing areas in Tamil Nadu, spraying mangoes with a very low concentration of hexanal (0.02%) twice during the growing season was found to retain the fruit on the tree for an extra three weeks, compared to non-sprayed mangoes. Delaying the harvest enabled farmers to get a premium price in the market - nearly double what was paid three weeks earlier.
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82

Planting of mango
Country: Benin
Category: Production
Technologies Detail : In Benin, mango trees are generally planted at the beginning of the rainy season (May in the South, June in the North). In terms of mango plant spacing, intervals between two consecutive trees for regular plantations are generally 10x10 m resulting in 100 mango trees per ha, regardless of the cultivars. Other tree intervals are also found, especially for traditional planting, leading to lower or higher plant densities as compared to that indicated earlier.
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83

Irrigation, Fertilization and Flowering
Country: Benin
Category: Crop Management
Technologies Detail : Irrigation of mango plantations is not practiced in Benin except during the two first years of the tree where the young plant should be irrigated during the dry season (December to March-April). Moreover, there is no special care for mango in terms of fertilization. In Benin, soils are generally rich and deep. So, mango plants only benefit from organic manure at plantation and that under the trees during their development. Generally, flowering of mango tree starts on the more than 3 years old plants. In Benin, flowering starts early in December in the South, at mid December in central areas and at the end of December in northern areas.
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84

Mango is propagated either by seed or in a vegetative way.
Country: Benin
Category: Propogation
Technologies Detail : The mango tree is propagated either by seed or in a vegetative way. Seedlings are grown to produce sometimes new cultivars. Seedings are mainly used to reproduce known monoembryonic cultivars such as Brooks, Kent, Keitt, Valencia in order to obtain grafted mango cultivars. Some producers use the plantlets from the grown seed under the mango trees. Vegetative propagation is used for the known monoembryonic types such as Amelie, to retain all the desired characteristics.
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85

The size, shape and colour of the mango fruit are mostly used by Benin pickers as indexes of maturity or ripeness.
Country: Benin
Category: Harvesting
Technologies Detail : In Benin, there are no special methods of determining mango maturity by pickers at harvest. Thus it is important to know the stage of maturity for determining when to harvest fruit since fruit harvested at an immature stage will not be able to achieve a level of quality acceptable to consumers. The size, shape and colour of the mango fruit are mostly used by Benin pickers as indexes of maturity or ripeness. During mango harvesting, fruit pickers move from one orchard to the next. Women in Benin use long picking poles to harvest mangoes. Generally, teams of mother and daughter harvest the fruit in selected parts of the orchard. Once finished, all pickers gather their harvest and negotiate a price with the owner.
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86

IPM package implemented on a fruit production scale (area? wide management) can provide significant results in terms of management.
Country: Benin
Category: Crop Management
Technologies Detail : Combination of several methods, namely (i) prophylactic management, (ii) spot treatments with GF-120, (iii) biological management with Oecophylla ants. Regular sanitary harvests reduce the parasite pressure and boost the effectiveness of treatments with Success Appat (GF-120) in the case of large fruit fly populations. Furthermore, Success Appat (GF-120) meets the standards for incorporation in an integrated pest management programme, i.e. (i) its specificity against Tephritidae, (ii) its non-toxicity against natural control agents (parasitoids, weaver ants), (iii) its effectiveness and (iv) its registration in organic production. As for weaver ants (O. longinoda), their compatibility with other components of integrated pest management is known.
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87

Mango pulp
Country: India
Category: Processing
Technologies Detail : Mango pulp is stored during the peak season of mango crop for subsequent use for various products. With the development of ready-to-serve beverage industry, there is an increasing demand for mango pulp in A-10 packs. The pulp is generally standardized to 14-18°B and 5- 6.5% acidity as citric acid by adding sugar syrup and citric acid, respectively. No preservative is used in the caned mango pulp. However, when the pulp is filled in polyethylene jars or far own use as a base material for beverage and jam preparation, potassium metabisulphite is used as preservative at a level of about 0.02%. Pulp is heated to 85℃, filled hot into cans and sealed and processed at 100℃ for 20 min and cooled. Addition of ascorbic acid at 100 mg % in the caning of mango pulp helps in the retention of colour, flavour and carotene.
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88

Mango beverages
Country: India
Category: Processing
Technologies Detail : Mango juice, nectar and squash are the three important beverages prepared on a commercial scale. As the mango pulp is very viscous, juice is prepared by adding almost equal quantity of water and adjusting the total soluble solids and acids to taste (12 to 15% TSS and 0.4 to 0.5% acidity).
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89

Dry mango products
Country: India
Category: Processing
Technologies Detail : Dried mango powder is good adjunct in ice cream, bakery and confectionery industry. Mango pulp or juice after concentration is mixed with powdered sugar and dried
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90

Mango leather
Country: India
Category: Processing
Technologies Detail : The pulp of the sour and seedling varieties is traditionally dried in the sun on an extensive scale for use as flavouring ingredients in Indian food preparations. The Central Food Technological Research Institute has worked on improving conditions for the hygienic drying of the ripe mango pulp in the form of bars for direct consumption. Mango leather can also be prepared from pulp dried in cross flow cabinet drier at a temperature of 60±5℃.
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