Technologies on Mango

31

Spray-dried green mango powder.
Country: Philippines
Category: Processing
Technologies Detail : The puree of green mangoes can be converted to a powder just like the puree of ripe mangoes by spray-drying. The spray-dried powder can be mixed with other condiments and used as a souring agent for exotic or native dishes, or as the raw material in the manufacture of instant green mango shake. The powder may be dry-mixed with sugar, powdered honey, caramel powder or powdered sugar syrup to instantize it. During this process, the mixture can be fortified with vitamins (e.g. ascorbic acid) and other nutrients.
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32

Spray-dried instant green mango shake.
Country: Philippines
Category: Processing
Technologies Detail : The beverage is an excellent source of vitamin C. When the green mango puree is spray-dried, a free-fl owing white to greenish-white powder is produced that will dissolve instantly even in cold H2O. The powdering process offers unprecedented convenience to the consumer, especially when the powder is packed in sachets. Since no artifi cial or synthetic colours and fl avouring agents are included in the liquid-feed formulation, the natural taste and aroma of green mango is retained in the powder.
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33

High density planting.
Country: India
Category: Production
Technologies Detail : An important approach for improving productivity; high economic returns per unit area. System permits maximum utilization of land, water, nutrients and solar energy. Conventionally, mango is planted at 10 x 10m (100 trees/hectare); high density planting (HDP) can accommodate 400 trees per hectare (5 x 5m). Canopy management involving training and pruning are essential aspects right from orchard establishment; these need to continue throughout the life of orchard. With integration of fertigation technology, productivity as high as 14-15 tons could be achieved as against 7-8 tonnes under conventional system. Fruit drop is minimum (4.2 %) under HDP. Pests and diseases management is crucial.
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34

Rejuvenation of old and senile mango orchards.
Country: India
Category: Crop Management
Technologies Detail :

  • About 35-40 per cent orchards in mango growing belt are old and unproductive; many respond to rejuvenation.
  • CISH technology on rejuvenation standardized in "Dashehari", involves heading back of branches during December to a level of about 3 meters from ground.
  • About three to four main branches emerging and having outward growth are retained; rest are pruned back to their bases.
  • Main branches are allowed to produce shoots and develop into canopy; thinning of excessive criss-crossing shoots is carried out during May and July to maintain 6-8 shoots per branch.
  • Trees develop healthy and productive canopy after two years and bearing starts.
  • Additional income from pruned wood and intercropping with short duration vegetables and ornamental crops are the other advantages.
  • Fruit yield increases up to 4-5 times of the initial status with improved size and quality due to better light penetration into the canopy.
  • Application of 2.5 kg urea, 3 kg Single super phosphate(SSP) and 1.5 kg Muriate of potash along with 100 kg FYM is recommended for each pruned tree.
  • These trees must be irrigated at interval of 15-20 days starting from March till the onset of monsoon.

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35

Flower induction in mango during
Country: India
Category: Production
Technologies Detail :

  • In case of Dashehari, full dose of paclobutrazol in the first year followed by half dose in the second year is required.
  • Alternate bearing is a serious problem prevailing in many choice varieties; rhythm of "On (heavy crop) and "Off" (lean or no crop) years occurs consecutively; profitability of mango orcharding is affected.
  • Commercial varieties of Uttar Pradesh, Dashehari, Langra, Chausa, Bombay Green and Lucknow Safeda, are alternate bearers.
  • Application of paclobutrazol @3.2 ml per meter canopy diameter through soil drenching during September is found to induce flowering even during "Off" year.
  • In Chausa and Langra, regular applications are necessary.
  • This technology was found to increase in Dashehari , "On" year yields by about 25 per cent, while providing 60 per cent of the normal yield during "Off" years.
  • This approach since operates through checking of vegetative growth /vigour, it is important to adopt good cultural practices for sustaining tree health in the long run.
  • Widely adopted in Maharashtra state (Konkan region) in Alphonso production.

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36

Integrated management of post-harvest diseases of mango.
Country: India
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail :

  • Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gleosporiodes), stem end rot (Lasiodiplodia theobromae) and Aspergillus rot (Aspergillus niger) are the major postharvest diseases.
  • Pre-harvest practices are very important to effectively manage post-harvest diseases. They include integrated water and nutrient management, integrated pest and disease management and proper harvesting.
  • Two pre-harvest sprays of thiophanate-methyl (0.1%) at 15 days interval starting from 3rd week of May to reduce the incidence of post-harvest diseases.
  • Harvested fruits, free from bruises, are treated in hot water using electrically operated circulative water bath at 52±1℃ for 20 minutes.
  • Duration of treatment could be reduced to 10 minutes by amending the hot water with prochloraz (0.05%) for ambient and prochloraz (0.1%) for low temperature (12±1℃) storage of fruits.
  • After treatment, fruits are air dried and packed in CFB boxes.
  • Fruits can be stored without any post-harvest diseases infection under ambient for 8-10 days while under low temperature conditions for up to 2- 3 weeks.
  • This technology has been proved very effective in managing post- harvest diseases of Dashehari, Langra, Chausa, Mallika and Amrapali.

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37

Improved mango harvester
Country: India
Category: Harvesting
Technologies Detail :

  • Traditional methods of harvesting lead to bruising and post-harvest losses.
  • Codex Alimentarius standards require that fruits should be harvested with 1.0 cm pedicel.
  • CISH in this background designed and developed the harvest device.
  • Leaf shaped GI frame attached to telescopic aluminum handle, V- blade of high carbon steel, divider to guide the fruits and nylon netted receptacle to collect fruits.
  • Functions through the actions of holding, pulling and shearing.
  • 600-800 fruits can be harvested per hour from a tree of about 4 m height in good bearing.
  • 50 per cent saving of energy involved in harvesting operation over traditional methods.
  • Cost of device is Rs.250.00.
  • Has become quite popular among mango growers of the region.

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38

CFB boxes for packing of fruits.
Country: India
Category: Transportation
Technologies Detail :

  • Mango and guava fruits are normally packed in wooden boxes weighing 2.0-2.5 kg having 50-55 nails and high ventilation.
  • 14-20 per cent losses occur in mango during transportation due to impact, compression, vibration, shock and friction.
  • Higher ventilation affects the maintenance of ideal environment required inside the box during transportation.
  • In this background, telescopic type Corrugated Fibre Board (CFB) boxes of 2.0 and 4.0 kg capacities having 0.5 per cent ventilation were designed and developed.
  • CFB boxes are safe, attractive, sturdy and suitable for effective handling and shipping of fresh produce.
  • Fruits will have less bruises and effective post-harvest treatments before packaging; minimize the losses during transport.
  • Suitable for export of fruits

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39

Uniform ripening of mango with ethrel.
Country: India
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail :

  • Many a time farmers harvest premature fruits to avail the early markets advantage
  • Such fruits fail to ripen uniformly under normal conditions; a banned chemical, calcium carbide, is used for forced ripening posing health and environmental risks.
  • Uniform ripening of mango is possible with the use of ethylene; accepted world over.
  • Procedure involves dipping of fruits (100 kg) in 100 litres of water containing 62.5-187.5 ml ethrel / ethepon at 52±2℃ for 5 minutes.
  • Concentration of ethrel to be used depends upon maturity of fruits, less matured ones require higher concentration.
  • Solution prepared once, can be repeatedly used for four times.
  • Ethrel treated fruits ripen uniformly with attractive yellow colour without any spoilage within 4-5 days of treatment.
  • Quality of fruits also improves; enhances market appeal.
  • Low cost ripening chamber (one ton capacity-7x7x7 ft) for the purpose of using ethylene gas (available in 200 ml canister) directly based on this principle, can also be developed for use either by the farmers or retailers or processors.

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40

Raw mango squash (panna).
Country: India
Category: Processing
Technologies Detail :

  • A traditional drink that could be prepared fresh in homes and consumed; can also be stored under ambient conditions.
  • Pulp is extracted after boiling hard green fruits (1kg) in 1 litre water.
  • Different ingredients viz., common salt (120 g), black salt (80 g), roasted cumin seeds powder (40 g),fresh mint leaves (200 g) and citric acid (65 g) are added.
  • Mixture is strained and consumed fresh; if required to be preserved sodium benzoate (1 g) dissolved in small quantity of water is added.
  • To prepare sweet squash, 450 g sugar is added, while for sour squash 450 g water is added.
  • Total quantity to be made up to 2 kg by weight with addition of boiled and cooled water.
  • Squash is filled into clean and sterilized glass / plastic bottles and sealed; product has shelf-life of about 9 months.
  • Served by diluting one part of squash with seven parts of chilled water

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41

Raw mango cutting machinery for pickle industry
Country: India
Category: Processing
Technologies Detail :

Raw Mango Peeler: To peel the mangoes for making paste and amchoor, capacity: 0.2 tonne/hour.

Raw Mango Slicer: To cut uniform size of mango slices of 20 mm thickness.

Raw Mango Cube Cutter: To cut uniform size of mango cubes of 10 gm each.


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42

Biological control of mango inflorescence hoppers Idioscopus spp
Country: India
Category: Crop Management
Technologies Detail : ICAR-IIHR, Bangalore a biological control strategy by using entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae was developed for management of the pest. An oil based formulation of this fungus was developed by the institute with a prolonged shelf life of more than 12 months that was as effective as chemical pesticides. Two- three sprays of the product at weekly intervals is recommending with recording of hopper infestation on panicles at flowering for effective control of the pest. The product /fungus proved to be safe to pollinators of mango such as Aphis sp, Chryosopha sp etc that are very important for fruit setting in mango.
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43

Post-harvest removal of blackening in mango fruit.
Country: India
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail : Smudgy fungal blemishes or surface blackening on late maturing mango varieties was recorded in Odisha as well as in various states during current mango season. Scientifically it is proved that this kind of blackening takes place in the absence of sap feeding insects and the pathogen responsible for this is different from sooty mould. This melanised fungal growth downgrades the fruits eye appeal by spoiling green fresh look of mangoes and appears at the time of maturity after rains. An effort towards removing this melody was made at Central Horticultural Experiment Station, Bhubaneswar by dipping the fruits after harvesting in a mixture of chemicals. This dipping removes 90-95% smudgy blemishes from the fruit surface.
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44

Healer cum sealer for the management of mango stem borer.
Country: India
Category: Crop Management
Technologies Detail :

Application / Use:

  • The solution is permanent (meaning there is no reinfestation in the same season)
  • The formulation completely blocks the unseen holes and as well visually seen holes.    

     

    Specific Benefits:

  • The tree is rejuvenated with nutrition
  • The formulation can be tried even under mild rains (However immediate heavy rains may wash off the treated tunnels post treatment; after 48 hr the treatment is rain-fast)
  • The formulation developed is cost effective

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    45

    Long term preservation of raw mango slices in brine for use in pickling.
    Country: India
    Category: Processing
    Technologies Detail : Raw mangoes required for pickling are available only during a short period of 3-4 months of cropping season. This necessitates preservation of these raw mangoes for extended period for pickle production round the year. Traditionally mango pieces are stored by dry salting process. This method involves storing mango pieces over layers of salt. Changes in colour, texture and microbiological spoilage are the common problems associated with this method. To overcome these problems, a brining method of preservation has been developed at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Bangalore.
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