Technologies on Mango

16

Bagging of mango fruit.
Country: China
Category: Production
Technologies Detail : Bagging of mango is also a research focused in recent years. Mango bagging has following advantages:to protect fruit surface to make it smooth and delicate; to improve the internal quality of fruit; to reduce the spraying frequency, to lower pesticide residues and production costs; to improve fruit storability to extend the shelf-life; to raise the price of fruit. From 2002 onward there have been some studies on the mango bagging reports that in general. That is to say, the yellow fruits are generally set in a double-layer paper bag outside yellow and inside black; and red fruits are set in a single-layer white paper bag. The best bagging time is after the second physiological fruit drop.
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17

Harvesting of fruit in an appropriate ripe status.
Country: China
Category: Harvesting
Technologies Detail : In order to enhance the commercial value of fruit, Chinese researchers regard that fruit must to be harvested in an appropriate ripe status. For fruits as processing, harvest time must be in accordance with the maturity requirements of the processed products. Fruits as processing can be combined with thinning of the fruit harvest so as to increase output. For the long-distance sales and storage fruit, when the seed shell hardens, the flesh changes from white to pale yellow, or 10% to 20% of them sink if adding the fruits in the water, they can be harvested; for the short distance sales fruit, when the shell hardens, the flesh changes from white to yellow or fruit sinking or semi-sinking, if adding the fruits in the water they can harvest. Make sure to remain fruit stalk 1 ~ 2 cm long picking to prevent the outflow of the juice from the fruit surface.
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18

Washing of fruits in the detergent.
Country: China
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail : Post-harvest fruit must be washed in the detergent within 24 hours, after drying followed by the hydrothermal (53 1 ?) 50% bennomy1or thiabendazole 1000 ~ 2000 ppm soaking the fruits of 10 to 15 minutes, to prevent and control anthracnose and stem end rot.
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19

Processing of 'Carabao' and 'Pico' mango.
Country: Philippines
Category: Processing
Technologies Detail : About a quarter of the total Carabao and Pico mango production in the Philippines is processed and the mango processing industry continuously grows in the country. Products derived from these two varieties include mango puree, mango juice, dried mangoes, mango concentrates, frozen mangoes, mango glaze, edible parts, mango wine, mango in brine and mango preserves.
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20

Preparation of wine from 'Carabao' mango.
Country: Philippines
Category: Processing
Technologies Detail : Development and Utilization of Technology on Indian Mango Fruit Processing: Since, wine from Carabao mango has been recognized in local and foreign markets, the researchers intend to produce wine from Indian Mango. Parameters for Indian mango wine production are the following: addition of 25 percent sugar, dilution of 11.68 percent water to Indian mango puree, utilization of unripe Indian mango and ageing the wine for three months. The produced Indian mango wine has acceptable sensory properties and its alcohol content is comparable with commercially available wine. Utilization of Indian mango wine technology by the selected cooperatives has increased their revenue and generated new jobs specifically for youth and women in the farms.
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21

Use of potassium nitrate to induce flowering in mango plants.
Country: Philippines
Category: Production
Technologies Detail : The use of potassium nitrate to induce flowering in mango plants. Forty years ago, Filipino horticulturalist, Dr. Ramon Barba developed a simple method for inducing early flowering in mango plants. His invention, widely used today, revolutionized the Philippine mango industry, making the crop one of the country's top export earners.
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22

Control of anthracnose and stem end rot.
Country: Philippines
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail : In mango, anthracnose and stem end rot are the common postharvest diseases that cause significant losses. Symptoms appear when the fruit ripens. One effective way of controlling this is the use of hot water treatment at 52-55 ? for 10 minutes.
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23

Evaluating fruit maturity by dipping the harvested fruits in 1% salt solution.
Country: Philippines
Category: Harvesting
Technologies Detail : Harvesting the Philippine Carabao mango at the immature stage does not guarantee normal ripening and full aroma and flavor. It is also very susceptible to internal breakdown during high temperatures. A non destructive method of evaluating fruit maturity is dipping the harvested fruits in 1% salt solution. Mature fruits sink due to higher specific gravity while the immature ones float and easily sorted out. This method could be done in the farm as soon as harvesting is over.
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24

Bagging of mango fruit.
Country: Taiwan
Category: Production
Technologies Detail : In Taiwan, bagging is commonly practiced to prevent oriental fruit fly damage 30 to 45 days before harvest. Two types of paper bags are used, white and black. The white bags are used on red cultivars, such as 'Irwin', while the black bags are used on cultivars whose skin color remain green such as in the case of 'Jinhwung'.
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25

Dried 'Carabao' mango.
Country: Philippines
Category: Processing
Technologies Detail : Dried mango: In the Philippines, the 'Carabao' mango is the preferred variety for dehydration or drying. The fruit should be at the fi rm-ripe stage. When over-ripe fruit is used as raw material, a dark-coloured product will invariably result. Although the dried pieces from over-ripe mangoes have a more distinct ripe mango flavour that attracts customers, the shelf life is considerably shorter. The fruit is washed thoroughly. The cheeks are sliced with a sharp stainless-steel knife. Each slice is then cut into two or three pieces lengthwise. The flesh is scooped from the skin with a stainless-steel scoop or ladle. These operations are done manually; however, a simple and novel peeling and slicing machine for ripe mangoes has been developed and patented in Australia. Sugar syrup is prepared by adding 175 kg sugar, 1.7 kg citric acid and 0.85 kg sodium metabisulfite in 175 l H2O to make a 45 Brix sugar concentration and heating to 90 ℃ C to dissolve the metabisulfite. The prepared mango slices (1 t) are added to the syrup. The preparation is heated to 90 ℃ C and then allowed to stand for at least 6 h. Subsequently, the sugar concentration of the syrup is adjusted by dissolving more sugar until the concentration reaches 50 Brix using a hand refractometer. After 6 h, the mango pieces are again removed from the syrup and the sugar concentration is adjusted to 60 Brix using a hand refractometer for the 'plumping' stage. The syrup is reheated to 90 ℃ C; the mango slices are added to the syrup and soaked for a further 6 h. The final step in the process involves the removal of mango pieces from the syrup. They are lightly rinsed with H2O to remove the excess sugar that may crystallize on the surface of the mango during drying. The slices are then loaded in drying trays and dehydrated at 40-50 ? in a convection dryer. Drying time usually requires 18 h. The dried mango pieces are unloaded from the dryer and reconditioned at room temperature overnight. Each piece is coated with confectioner's sugar. The product is then packed in aluminium-foil-laminated pouches and sealed. Recent improvements in dryer design can reduce drying time to 8 h. As a result, up to three batches of prepared mango slices can be processed daily instead of only two batches every 36 h.
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26

Mango fruit bar.
Country: Philippines
Category: Processing
Technologies Detail : Puree processed from ripe 'Carabao' mango is the preferred raw material for the manufacture of mango fruit bar in the Philippines, although 'Pico' is also suitable because of the orange colour of the puree. The total solids content of 1 lt of mango puree is adjusted to 25 Brix with the use of a hand refractometer by adding sugar to the puree. The amount of sugar required depends on the initial total solids content of the mango puree. Then 2 kg each of citric acid and sodium metabisulfi te are blended into the puree. Juice of calamansi, also known as the Philippine lemon Citrofortunella microcarpa Wij. (Bunge); Citrus mitis Blanco) may be used instead of citric acid at the rate of c.20 kg per batch, although the resulting cost of the product will be slightly higher. There is no real difference in the appearance and flavour of the finished product. Citrus juice is generally utilized if the client prefers an all-natural product. The prepared puree is heated for 2 min at 80℃. At the end of the drying operation, the dried sheets of mango should be pliable and should not stick to the fingers when touched. The sheets of mango are removed from the trays. Six layers of the dried mango leather are stacked on top of each other. The edges are trimmed and bars measuring 2-4 cm are cut from the stack. Each bar is coated with confectioner's sugar, wrapped in cellophane then packed in labelled plastic bags.
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27

Mango fruit roll.
Country: Philippines
Category: Processing
Technologies Detail : The total solids content of 1 lt of mango puree is adjusted to 25 Brix using a hand refractometer by adding sugar to the puree. The amount of sugar needed depends on the initial total solids content of the mango puree. Then 2 kg each of citric acid and sodium metabisulfi te are blended into the puree. As with mango fruit bar, citric acid may be replaced by calamansi juice at the rate of c.20 kg per batch without affecting the overall sensory quality of the fruit roll, if the client specifi es an all-natural product. The prepared puree is then heated for 2 min at 80℃ with constant stirring to avoid scorching. The hot mixture is carefully transferred to stainless-steel drying trays. The trays are loaded into a convection dryer and dried for 12-16 h at 55℃. The dried sheets of mango are removed from the trays. Confections's sugar is sprinkled over a stainless-steel-topped table to avoid sticking of the sheets on subsequent rolling. Each sheet is rolled manually into 1 cm diameter pieces. The ends are trimmed; and each roll is sliced into 5 cm long pieces. The pieces are coated with confectioner's sugar and wrapped with cellophane. The rolls are then packed in appropriate containers.
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28

Vacuum-puffed dried mango.
Country: Philippines
Category: Processing
Technologies Detail : The ripe mangoes are washed thoroughly in chlorinated H2O, then sliced either mechanically or with a stainless-steel knife. The flesh is scooped from the skin with a sharp stainless-steel ladle. The fruit pieces are then heated to 90℃ in 30 Brix syrup containing 1% sodium metabisulfite, and steeped in the syrup for 4-6 h. The mango slices are removed from the syrup, rinsed briefly in H2O, arranged in stainless-steel trays and loaded into the vacuum oven. The mango pieces thus prepared are initially heated at a positive pressure of 40-50 kPa until the maximum tissue temperature of 100℃ is reached, usually within 8 min. The pressure is released and the hot mango pieces are dried at 70 to 80 kPa vacuum at a temperature of 45℃. Total dehydration time under vacuum is 6 h. The above pressure-temperature combinations provide the most desirable puff and rehydration characteristics.
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29

Spray-dried mango powders.
Country: Philippines
Category: Processing
Technologies Detail : Spray-drying is a process in which a liquid feed is finely dispersed or atomized to form droplets, which are eventually sprayed into a heated air chamber. The process facilitates the rapid evaporation of H2O from the feed droplets, thereby forming the powder particles. The product obtained using the technology is a free-fl owing powder that may or may not be instantly soluble in H2O, depending on the formulation of the liquid feed that has been used. Tropical fruit juice powders that are rapidly soluble in H2O are produced directly by spray-drying fruit juices and purees. By dry-mixing spray-dried plain fruit powder with sweeteners, a ready-to-drink juice is made. The latter method has the added advantage in that it allows formulation of exclusive blends of fruit drinks. As a result, consumers have a wider range of products from which to choose that will suit their individual preferences.
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30

Spray-dried mango fruit powder and instant mango juice.
Country: Philippines
Category: Processing
Technologies Detail : Both products use mango puree as the raw material. They differ only in the composition of the liquid feed. The liquid feed is mango puree with the total solids adjusted to the right consistency, thereby allowing the puree to be discharged through a high-speed nozzle in the form of fi ne droplets into the drying chamber that quickly dries to a yellow free flowing powder.
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