Technologies on Mango

1

Mango harvest-aid.
Country: Australia
Category: Harvesting
Technologies Detail : Australian mango harvest-aid used in field uses a detergent covered tarpaulin to catch fruit and cover them in a protective layer of detergent to prevent sap-burn
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2

Australian mango harvest-aid chery-picker model.
Country: Australia
Category: Harvesting
Technologies Detail : Australian mango harvest-aid chery-picker model where fruit is hand picked into an elevated bin that is constantly being sprayed with a de-sapping agent.
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3

Prototype pasteurization machine for the product and a procedures manual to keep in excellent condition after harvest.
Country: Mexico
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail : Facing the need of a company that sells mango as raw material for processing as puree, nectar or juice, researchers at the University of Guanajuato (UGTO), in the center of Mexico, designed a prototype pasteurization machine for the product and a procedures manual to keep it in excellent condition after harvest.
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4

Pallet covers used for the thermal protection of mango pallets.
Country: USA
Category: Transportation
Technologies Detail : Commercially available pallet covers used for the thermal protection of mango pallets that are transported in a mixed load refrigerated trailer.
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5

"Nirvana" from Integrated Spectronics.
Country: Australia
Category: Harvesting
Technologies Detail : "Nirvana" from Integrated Spectronics: A handheld variant NIR spectrometer, equipped with a GPS unit for spatial mapping, has found application to quality control of dry matter and flesh colour in the Calypso (One Harvest) supply chain. The handheld NIR technology can be used in quality control on consignments being received to a packhouse, be that from different picking crews or paddocks, or from different farms supplying a packhouse.
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6

Delay the ripening process.
Country: Mexico
Category: Transportation
Technologies Detail : Aqueous 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on mango to delay the ripening process. Aqueous 1-MCP had a good performance in "Kent" and "Keitt" fruit since caused delay of fruit ripening as shown by maintenance of fruit firmness, attenuation of pulp color development, and delayed increase of total soluble solids. It seems that 1-MCP is not a good alternative for mangos exported to the USA, but may be most useful for mango markets that do not require mandatory QHWT (Quarantine Hot Water Treatment).
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7

Hazard Analysis & Control Points (HACCP) practices
Country: Brazil
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail : The incoming mangos are washed and graded, sorted by size or weight using manual or automated check weighers and cameras and then sent in batches through heat treatment immersion tanks that have chlorinated water. After this postharvest process in accordance with Hazard Analysis & Control Points (HACCP) practices, the dried mangos are hand packed in trays based on their size, weight and quality. The growers and packers, try to meet the primary criteria of a filling a designated 4 kg tray.
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8

An APL intermodal container with pallets of unitized mango fruit in corrugated trays.
Country: Peru
Category: Post harvest
Technologies Detail : An APL intermodal container with pallets of unitized mango fruit in corrugated trays (12 per layer, 21 layers high). The container was then moved on the flat-bed truck to the port of Talara, Peru and then by ship across the Panama Canal to a distributor in New York, U.S. The trays are then stacked in a 4 x 3, or 12 trays per layer configuration on wooden stringer style pallets, 21 layers high, and unitized using 10-11 horizontal plastic straps with vertical (extruded plastic) corner angle boards. These are then subjected to either a forced air cooling system, or just placed for longer times in cold air warehouses. Palletized loads are then loaded inside pre-cooled ISO intermodal containers for shipment by truck to the port, and then by ship to the U.S. where they are sent to regional distributors.
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9

High density planting in mango cv. Alphonso
Country: India
Category: Production
Technologies Detail : High density planting in mango cv. Alphonso: High density plantation in "Alphonso" mango with 5m x 5m spacing is helpful for getting higher yield and more net returns/unit area. High density planting of "Alphonso" mango not only gives higher yield/unit area during the initial years, but also promises higher net returns subsequently.
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10

Improve fruit setting rate in mango.
Country: China
Category: Crop Management
Technologies Detail : Spraying GA3 or 4-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid one time every 15 ~ 20 days to improve fruit setting rate; after the end of the first physiological fruit drop (after flowering 1 to 2 months), cutting off in time stunting, malformation, worms fruit, thinning too dense or weak panicles to trees flowering too many, to remain healthy fruit per panicle 1 to 3. The tree can bear up to the level of plants, that is, shoot strong, normal colour. Hanging fruit will be done with bamboo sticks or ropes at the beginning of expansion of the fruit ,so that the fruits are off the ground and, if possible, keep the fruits uniform distribution in the crown.
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11

Control of flowering period in mango.
Country: China
Category: Production
Technologies Detail : In Hainan flowering period can be man-made control, fruit can be harvest in advance to March each year, the harvest time can be 2 to 3 months earlier than mainland China, significantly improving economic efficiency. At present 90% of Hainan mango cultivation area are using this technology. The key point is as follows: Buring 15% Paclobutrazol under the tree when the second new shoots come out, 10 grams paclobutrazol per meter according to the crown diameter. Spraying paclobutrazol 40 grams / pot of water (15kg) when the leaves of the seond shoots turn yellow ,together with pesticides.From September to January in Hainan province, cytokinin (10 g), NAA (5 ml), potassium nitrate (200 g), borax (20 g) , Foliar amino acid (20ml ) are mixed together in a pot of water(15kg water) to spray to promote flowers.
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12

Tip- shoot grafting in mango.
Country: China
Category: Propogation
Technologies Detail : Tip-Shoot grafting is becoming more common in China.Tip-shoot grafting is basically grafting of small to mid stems,using only one scion,each scion has two to four lateral buds . Rootstocks are cut off 20-40 cm above the soil and the shoot is split to a depth about halfway down the stem. The scion is prepared as a twosided wedge with smooth, sloping cuts about 2 to 3 cm in length . It is then inserted into the split in the stock, making care that the cambia of the two match along at least one side. The union is then wrapped securely with polyethylene tape and the entire graft is covered with the tapes. Grafted mangos will usually begin to bear within 3 to 4 years of propagation.
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13

Use of topworking technology in China.
Country: China
Category: Crop Management
Technologies Detail : Because the mango area in China keep relatively stable, so when a new cultivar appears, generally it is desirable to change cultivar without having to destroy the tree. Topworking technology is the first option. It can be done the first year and bear fruits the following year. It can shorten the period two years than re-planting. Topworking time is different in china. Generally in April to May, when the tree is vigorous, and it is rarely rainy, suitable in temperature ,and therefore it has a high grafting survival rate. A vigorous, healthy mature tree may be cut off 1-2 m above the ground and treated with pruning scissors and saws. 5-30 sprouts will grow out from the trunk,when new shoots become old, most of them can be grafted into desired variety.
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14

Training and pruning of mango trees.
Country: China
Category: Crop Management
Technologies Detail : Tree training and Pruning: Suggested tree size varies with environment, plant spacing, available technology, frequency of hurricanes, and cultivar growth habit and harvest season. There is sufficient time for early-maturing cultivars pruned immediately after harvest to mature the vegetative flushing after pruning than mid- and late season cultivars.Pruning early or mid season cultivars immediately after harvest and for late season cultivars design a program of periodic pruning, e.g., in the early mango growing region Hainan province, generally pruning after fruit, all the branches may get fruit in the next year; in the late mango growing region Sichuan province, generally keep 50% of branches fruit , 50% branches as vegetative shoots.
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15

Fertlizer application in mango.
Country: China
Category: Crop Management
Technologies Detail : In China , based on fertilizer, mainly in the following several fertilization: promoting shoot fertilizer. It is based on nitrogen after harvest, there is balanced ternary compound fertilizer, or compound fertilizer plus urea, but also high nitrogen fertilizer, generally 0.5 kg per tree or so, some orchards only urea; controlling shoot fertilizer: potassium chloride or potassium sulfate 0.5kg / per tree, plus calcium super-phosphate 0.5 ~ 1 kg / per tree; promoting flower fertilizer: At the stage of per-flowering or flowering, mainly compound fertilizer, generally 0.5 ~ 1kg per tree, mainly for abortion fruit promotion, but there are a large part of the orchards which don't fertilize, mainly by foliar spray, and growth hormone. It is no more than 50 percent orchards to make use of organic fertilizer. Organic fertilizer mainly in the period of controlling shoot, the type and quantity of organic fertilizer varied, very different, generally animal facilities manure, such as sheep manure, cow dung, chicken manure and so on, usually after decomposition reactor retting facilities, sometimes cake fertilizer, such as cotton cake, rapeseed cake, etc.
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